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用可再生動力的電合成取代石化過程需要什么?**
二氧化碳(CO 2 )和水的電催化轉化為化學原料提供了通過使化學工業擺脫對化石燃料的依賴而減少碳排放的潛力。我們提供了可能產品的技術經濟和碳排放分析,并提供了實現具有經濟吸引力的工業實施所需的目標。我們還提供了化學原料在電催化,生物催化和化石燃料衍生生產中的預計成本和CO 2 排放的比較。我們發現,為了使電合成在源自化石燃料的原料中具有競爭力,電化轉換效率至少需要達到60%,可再生電力價格必須降至每千瓦時4美分以下。我們討論了將CO 2 順序升級作為代表案例的將電催化和生物催化過程相結合的可能性。我們描述了市售電合成化學品的技術挑戰和經濟障礙。**
What would it take for renewably powered electrosynthesis to displace petrochemical processes?
Electrocatalytic transformation of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water into chemical feedstocks offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions by shifting the chemical industry away from fossil fuel dependence. We provide a technoeconomic and carbon emission analysis of possible products, offering targets that would need to be met for economically compelling industrial implementation to be achieved. We also provide a comparison of the projected costs and CO2 emissions across electrocatalytic, biocatalytic, and fossil fuel-derived production of chemical feedstocks. We find that for electrosynthesis to become competitive with fossil fuel-derived feedstocks, electrical-to-chemical conversion efficiencies need to reach at least 60%, and renewable electricity prices need to fall below 4 cents per kilowatt-hour. We discuss the possibility of combining electro- and biocatalytic processes, using sequential upgrading of CO2 as a representative case. We describe the technical challenges and economic barriers to marketable electrosynthesized chemicals.
pmid: 31023896 Science 影響因子: 41.037 發表日期: 20190426 官網 免費下載
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